Petroleum Industry

Nuclear Techniques

  • Well Logging Techniques- Used to help to distinguish the shale content of sedimentary rocks for litho-logical identification, to indicate how porous the rock is and whether it is likely to contain hydrocarbons or water, to indicate the presence of gas to determine chlorine, or salt water, content of the rocks
  • Nuclear Gauging - installed to monitor or control the density of fluid flowing through pipelines, fluid levels in vessels and to detect the interface between fluids of different densities, such as the water, oil and gas interfaces in separators. e.g. on crude oil export lines.
  • Multi-Phase Flow Meters (MPFMs) - They are used to measure the phase fraction of oil, gas and water in the flow from an oil well. Installed at different locations in refineries for various activities of the flow lines.
  • Radiotracers Technique - These are radioactive liquids which are injected by specialized equipment into selected oil and gas field wells.
  • Industrial Radiography -Oil and gas operators commonly employ service companies to carry NDT to ensure that all constructions and fabrications are completed to the required standard and to check the integrity of petroleum pipes by identifying flaws in welds to prevent leakages and where and whenever such leakages occur, mend them

Radiation Sources Used

  • Americum-241 - To help determine where oil wells should be drilled
  • Cesium-137  - To measure and control the liquid flow in oil pipelines, to tell well owners whether oil wells are plugged by sand
  • Cobalt-60 -By oil service companies to improve the safety and reliability of industrial fuel oil burners
  • Curium-244 - To analyze material excavated from pits and slurries from drilling operations
  • Iridium-192 - By NDT companies to test the integrity of pipeline welds, boilers and oil storage tanks and for detecting leakages in buried pipelines
  • Tritium-3 - In gauges to measure oil flow in pipes and oil platforms and for geological prospecting for crude oil and gas
  • X-Ray Scanners – For security and baggage scanning.
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